In July 2016, Lorraine Hope, Joanne Rechdan, Andrew Clark, Feni Kontogianni and Shiri Portnoy will present their research at the International Conference on Memory (ICOM) in Budapest, Hungry. Below you will find details of each of our talks and posters.
Symposium: Memory in the ‘Real World’: Factors influencing memory in forensic settings
Title: Was that how it happened? Exploring the effects of co-witness discussion on metamemory.
Abstract: Previous research has examined how co-witness discussion alters the accuracy of eyewitness reports, but not how discussion affects metacognitive mechanisms that dictate the quantity (number of questions attempted) and quality (level of detail) of memory reports. In Experiment I (N= 92), we examined the effect of receiving confirming or disconfirming feedback from a co-witness on memory reports. Participants receiving disconfirming feedback (cf. confirming or no feedback) provided fewer fine-grained answers on a subsequent recall questionnaire. In Experiment II, (N=60) participants viewed a crime video and answered questions
about it, either immediately or following a discussion with a co-witness who had seen a different version. Analyses will explore the effects of co-witness discussion on the quantity and quality of recall reports.
Rechdan, J., Hope, L., Sauerland, M., Sauer, J.D., & Ost, J. (2016, July). Was that how it happened? Exploring the effects of co-witness discussion on metamemory. In J. Gawrylowicz (Chair), Memory in the ‘Real World’: Factors influencing memory in forensic settings. Symposium conducted at the sixth International Conference on Memory, Budapest, Hungary.
Symposium: Theoretical and legal issues related to autobiographical belief and recollection
Title: Challenging beliefs does not lead to memory omissions
Researchers have speculated that nonbelieved memories (where belief in a recollection is attenuated) could be the precursor to making a memory omission error. Research has also shown that belief is most often attenuated following some kind of social feedback (i.e., when people are told that an event did not occur). In two experiments, participants’ recollections of items (Expt. 1) or actions (Expt. 2) were challenged by either a confederate (Expts. 1 & 2) or by the experimenter (Expt. 2). Our results showed that although challenging recollections indeed resulted in memory omissions, relatively few of these omissions met the criteria for a nonbelieved memory.
Clark, A., Hope, L., Otgaar, H., Ost, J., & Sauer, J. (2016, July). Challenging beliefs does not lead to memory omissions. In H. Otgaar (Chair), Theoretical and legal issues related to autobiographical belief and recollection. Symposium conducted at the sixth International Conference on Memory, Budapest, Hungary.
Poster title: Introducing a new mnemonic to the timeline technique: retrieval support for sub-optimally encoded events
Abstract: The timeline technique, which uses an innovative reporting format to elicit information about witnessed events, enhances the reporting of person-action details. The current study extends the timeline methodology with the addition of a novel and theoretically-informed mnemonic, the use of self-generated cues (SGC). We also investigate the facilitating properties of the SGC compared to mental reinstatement of context (MRC) and no mnemonics (control) for optimally and sub-optimally encoded events. One hundred and thirty-two participants witnessed a multi-perpetrator crime event under full or divided attention and were asked to provide their account. Across timeline reporting conditions, participants were also given instructions of SGC, MRC, or no mnemonics. Results have implications for autobiographical memory organization at retrieval and eliciting information contexts.
Kontogianni, F., Hope, L., Taylor, P., Vrij, A., & Gabbert, F. (2016, July). Introducing a new mnemonic to the timeline technique: retrieval support for sub-optimally encoded events. Poster presented at the sixth International Conference on Memory, Budapest, Hungary.
Poster title: Strategic regulation and reporting in the alibis of innocent and guilty suspects
Abstract: Alibis provided by truth-teller suspects often fail to convince investigators of their innocence. To promote the generation of credible alibis by truth-tellers, we examined the effect of different pre-alibi instructions on alibis provided by innocent vs. guilty suspects. Drawing on Koriat and Goldsmith’s (1996) model of strategic regulation of memory accuracy, innocent and guilty participants provided an alibi (for an apparent theft) that emphasized the accuracy or informativeness of the reported information, both, or none. Alibi quality and quantity are expected to be highest for innocent participants instructed to provide accounts that are both accurate and informative. Results will inform interviewers how best to maximize the memory output of innocent suspects through the use of pre-alibi instructions.
Portnoy, S., Hope, L., Vrij, A., Granhag, P-A., & Ask, K. (2016, July). Strategic regulation and reporting in the alibis of innocent and guilty suspects. Poster presented at the sixth International Conference on Memory, Budapest, Hungary.
Copyright 2014 Hope